Below is text with blanks. Click on each blank, a list of choices will appear. Select the appropriate answer for each blank.

1)  Arbitration is a method of conflict resolution which, with more or less formalized mechanisms, occurs in many political and legal spheres. There are two main  to arbitration. The first is that it is a voluntary process under which two parties in conflict agree between themselves to be  by the judgment of a third party which has no other  over them; the judgment, however, is not legally binding. The second is that there is usually no clear body of  or set of rules that must apply; the arbitrator is free, subject to any prior agreement with the conflicting parties, to decide on whatever basis of justice is  suitable. Arbitration has been used successfully, for example, to decide on disputed borders between Israel and Egypt, where local history was a major part of the arbitrator's decision.

 

 

2)  When I enrolled in my master's course at Oxford last year, I had come straight from medical school with the decision to leave clinical science for good. Thinking back, I realize that I didn't put very much  on this decision at the time. But today, I more clearly understand the  of leaving my original profession. When I meet old friends who are now physicians and surgeons, I sense how our views on medical problems have . They scrutinize the effects of disease and try to eliminate or alleviate them; I try to understand how they come about in the first place. I feel happier working on this side of the problem, although I do occasionally miss clinical work and seeing patients.
However, when I think about the rate at which my medical skills and knowledge have 
, the years spent reading weighty medical textbooks, the hours spent at the bedside, I sometimes wonder if these years were partly a  of time now that I am pursuing a research career.
Nonetheless, I know the value of my medical education. It is easy to forget the importance of the biosciences when working with model organisms in basic research that seem to have nothing to do with a sick child or a suffering elderly person. Yet, I still have vivid memories of the cruel kaleidoscope of severe diseases and of how they can 
 a human being. I hope to retain these memories as a guide in my current occupation.

 

 

 

3)  The ocean floor is home to many unique communities of plants and animals. Most of these marine ecosystems are near the water surface, such as the Great Barrier Reef, a 2,000-km-long coral  off the northeastern coast of Australia. Coral reefs, like nearly all complex living communities, depend on solar energy for growth. The sun's energy, however, penetrates at most only about 300 m below the surface of the water. The relatively shallow penetration of solar energy and the sinking of cold, subpolar water combine to make most of the deep ocean floor a - environment with few life forms. In 1977, scientists discovered hot springs at a depth of 2.5 km, on the Galapagos Rift (spreading ridge) off the coast of Ecuador. This exciting discovery was not really . Since the early 1970s, scientists had predicted that hot springs (geothermal vents) should be found at the active spreading centers along the mid-oceanic ridges, where magma, at temperatures over 1,000 °C, presumably was being erupted to form new oceanic crust. More exciting, because it was totally unexpected, was the discovery of abundant and unusual sea life -- giant tube worms, huge clams, and mussels -- that  around the hot springs.