1)    Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting all the correct responses. You will need to select more than one response.

Most stones have capillary passages that suck salt water from the wet ground. Death Valley provides an ultradry atmosphere and high daily temperatures, which promote evaporation and the formation of salt crystals along cracks or other openings within stones. These crystals grow as long as salt water is available. Like tree roots breaking a sidewalk, the growing crystals exert pressures on the rock and eventually pry the rock apart along planes of weakness, such as banding in metamorphic rocks, bedding in sedimentary rocks, preexisting or incipient fractures, and along boundaries between individual mineral crystals or grains. Besides crystal growth, the expansion of halite crystals by heating and of sulfates and similar salts by hydration can contribute additional stresses. A rock durable enough to have served as your great, great, ever so great grandfather's tombstone could probably be shattered into small pieces by salt weathering within a few generations.

According to passage, which of the following is NOT TRUE about the effects of salts on rocks?

Only two types of salts cause prying and wedging.

Salts usually cause damage only in combination with ice.

A variety of salts in all kinds of environments can cause weathering.

Salt damage at the seashore is more severe than sale damage in Death Valley.

A rock strong enough to have withstood natural conditions for a very long time could be broken apart by salt weathering.





2)    Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting all the correct responses. You will need to select more than one response.

This is a general consensus among mainstream anthropologist that human first emerged in Africa about two million years ago. Since then they have spread throughout the world, successfully adapting to widely differing conditions and to periodic cataclysmic changes in local and global climate. The many separate societies that emerged around the globe differed markedly from each other and many of these differences persist to this day. As well as the more obvious cultural differences that exist between peoples, such as language, dress and traditions, there are also significant variations in the way societies organise themselves, in their shared moral values, and in the ways they interact with their environment. It is debatable whether these differences are merely incidental artefacts arising from patterns of human migration or whether they represent an evolutionary trait that is key to our success as a species.

According to the passage, which of the following statements are true?

A lot of the differences between separate societies are still found until these days.

The differences mentioned in the paragraph are rooted from an evolutionary trait.

Incidental artefacts arising from patterns of human migration are the main reason causing the differences between separate societies.

Many anthropologists believe that human first appear in Africa million years ago.

There are various differences exist between peoples in terms of culture, moral values, environmental interaction and social structures.



3)    Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting all the correct responses. You will need to select more than one response.

Sign languages are not simply a series of gestures; they utilize the same grammatical machinery that is found in spoken languages. Moreover, there are many different languages used worldwide. The creation of one such language was documented quite recently in Nicaragua. Previously, all deaf people were isolated from each other, but in 1979 a new government introduced schools for the deaf. Although children were taught speech and lip reading in the classroom, in the playgrounds they began to invent their own sign system, using the gestures that they used at home. It was basically a pidgin. Each child used the signs differently, and there was no consistent grammar. However, children who joined the school later, when this inventive sign system was already around, developed a quite different sign language. Although it was based on the signs of the older children, the younger children’s language was more fluid and compact, and it utilized a large range of grammatical devices to clarify meaning. What is more, all the children used the signs in the same way. A new creole was born.

What information about Nicaraguan sign language is true?

The language has been created since 1979

The language is based on speech and lip reading.

The language incorporates signs which children used at home.

The language was perfected by younger children.

The younger children’s language was less close-packed




4)    Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting all the correct responses. You will need to select more than one response.

Although leaders are often thought to be people with unusual personal ability, decades of research have failed to produce consistent evidence that there is any category of “natural leaders”. It seems that there is no set of personal qualities that all leaders have in common; rather, virtually any person may be recognized as a leader if the person has qualities that meet the needs of that particular group.

Furthermore, although it is commonly supposed that social groups have a single leader, research suggests that there are typically two different leadership roles that are held by different individuals. Instrumental leadership is leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks by a social group. Group members look to instrumental leaders to get things done. Expressive leadership, on the other hand, is leadership that emphasizes the collective well-being of a social group’s member. Expressive leaders are less concerned with the overall goals of the group then with providing emotional support to group members and attempting to minimize tension and conflict among them.  Group members expect expressive leaders to maintain stable relationships within the group and provide support to individual members.

Which of the following statements about leadership can be inferred from the passage?

A person who is an effective leader of a particular group may not be an effective leader in another group.

Few people succeed in sharing a leadership role with another person.

A person can best learn how to be an effective leader by studying research on leadership.

Instrumental leadership are more concerned with the targets of the group than with supporting emotionally to group members.

Most people desire to be leaders but can produce little evidence of their qualifications.