1)  Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.

By charting out the typical cognitive development of children, Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget has heavily influenced how psychiatrists delineate the progress of juvenile psychological growth. Beginning in the 1920s and up until his death in 1980, he studied the errors schoolchildren made on various tests and realised that children of the same age made the same kinds of reasoning errors. Based on these recurring patterns, he identified stages in a child’s cognitive development, beginning from infancy and extending through adulthood. Essentially, he proposed that there was a common timetable by which children initially develop simple cognitive skills and gradually refine them into more abstract ways of thinking. While more recent theories on the matter suggest that there is more overlap among these stages and that different environments affect children’s progress, Piaget’s theory was nonetheless extremely important to initial studies of cognitive development.

The author moots Piaget’s dissertations with children in order to:

collate his disquisitions with contemporary therapists’.

denote the glitches in his procedures.

designate how he augmented his postulations.

exhibits how Piaget’s hypotheses are pertained.





2)  Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.

Many of the latest scientific accomplishments fall in the realm of “pure” science. This is research for the sake of increasing man’s knowledge without concern about how the knowledge is going to be used. In contrast with pure science is “applied” science. The production of synthetic diamonds is an example of applied science. In applied science the facts and principles of pure science are used in the solution of a problem which has or will have immediate economic and social importance.

Often in the past, applied science has gone far ahead of pure science. Its practical applications have been used for man’s good even before the basic facts and principles were understood. For example, the telegraph, telephone and electric motor, which could not work without electrons, were invented before man discovered the electron. People were vaccinated long before viruses were investigated. Chemicals like sulfuric acid and soda were manufactured long before man began to understand the nature of the atom. Today, however, if applied science is to grow it must depend more and more on increased knowledge of pure science.

In the past, applied science went far ahead of pure science because:

Pure science has been discovered only in recent years

Men understood the basic facts and principles of pure science before they discovered and invented things.

Pure science had been considered less important than applied science.

Many inventions and discoveries had been made before men knew the basic scientific theories.




3) Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.

Like any work whose popularity outlives its own time, Gullivers’ Travels can be profitably and pleasurably read in a variety of ways by a great variety of readers. In modern times, by readers habituated to the predominant fictional form of the twentieth century, it has often been read as a kind of novel. In this reading, Gulliver is the central character, and we follow his exploits on his four voyages with an interest in his experience, his achievements, his development and his survival.

What does the author imply about?

There is a great variety of readers can get benefits from the popularity of Gulliver’s work.

Due to a predominant fictional form of the temporary time, the work has been read as a kind of novel.

Readers are expected to enjoy following Gulliver’s travelling stories as he is the main character of the book.

The ways of reading the Gullivers’ Travels can be pleasurable and beneficial to different types of readers.




4) Read the text and answer the multiple-choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.

We welcome the generalization by Del Giudice of our model investigating the evolvability conditions for predictive adaptive responses (PARs) in long-lived species like humans. In our original approach, environmental conditions in 1 year were modelled as the sum of the conditions in the previous year plus a perturbation term to represent exogenous sources of change. The perturbation terms were independent from year to year. If the exogenous perturbation forces are themselves temporally autocorrelated, then environmental change is described by a more complex autoregressive structure than the one used in our original model, one in which conditions in the current year are influenced by conditions in the previous year and the one before that. Del Giudice shows that when dependencies between successive years take this more complex form, the present becomes in effect a better guide to the future than it would otherwise have been. This makes the external PAR (using conditions experienced early in ontogeny as a guide to the likely adult external environment) an adaptive strategy under a somewhat wider range of conditions that those we originally reported.

According to the text, what is the correct idea that Del Giudice indicates in his study?

Environmental conditions in 1 year is considered as the sum of the following year conditions.

Environmental change is indicated as a complex structure that is less effective than the original model.

The external predictive adaptive responses can be suitable strategies under some conditions.

The perturbation terms were to present exogenous sources of change which can dependently change over years.